8. Chronology
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  • First Athenian domination

    478/7
    Creation by Athens of the Delian League
    The sanctuary of Apollo and the League's treasury, deposited on Delos, are run by Athenian magistrates known as Amphictyons
    454
    Transfer of the treasury to the Acropolis in Athens
    434/3-433/2
    ID 89, first preserved administrative act that concerns the sanctuary at Delos.
    431
    Beginning of the Peloponnesian War.
    426-425
    Second purification of the island, after the one in the second half of the sixth century under Peisistratus: these purifications entailed the removal of tombs from the island.
    The following year, in 425, the first penteteric Delia mentioned in written sources are celebrated: towards the end of the fifth century, on the occasion of these Athenian festivals Nicias and Callias, as architheoroi, dedicated 102 and 109 tiaras respectively (see ID 104, p.46). The former played an important political role in Athens and died in the Sicilian Expedition (415-412), the latter was regarded as the richest man of his time.
    422
    Expulsion of the Delians to Adramyttion in Asia Minor by the Athenians, on the pretext of impurity; the following year, the Delians are restored to the island following a Delphic oracle.

    Ten years of independence

    405
    Defeat of Athens at Aegospotami: Delos recovers its independence within an Aegean Sea dominated by Sparta. An act was drawn up by Delian magistrates, the hieropoioi, in 395 (ID 95).

    It is to this period (405-395) that must be attributed the offerings of Lysander of Sparta, the Spartan admiral who defeated the Athenians, who offered a golden rose and crown to Apollo (see ID 104, p.46).


    The return of Athens: the second naval confederacy

    394
    After Conon's victory over the Spartan fleet, the Athenians regain a foothold on Delos.
    378/7
    Foundation by Athens of the second confederacy, of which Delos is part.
    374/3
    The Delians violently expel the Athenian Amphictyons: those responsible are punished with banishment and condemned to pay a fine of 10000 drachmas (see ID 98, p.36).
    350-345/44
    ? Construction of the Pythion (GD 42) (see ID 104-4 and 104-24, p.53 and p.57)
    343/42
    The Delians demand their independence at the court of the Amphictyons at Delphi, but they are dismissed.
    Summer of 314
    Delos takes advantage of the proclamation of Antigonus Monophthalmus freeing all the Greek cities to escape Athenian oversight.

    The so-called Independent period

    The history of Delos from 314 to 167 BC is intertwined with that of the Cyclades, which experienced various different dominations in the form of confederations; within the confederations, the island and sanctuary seem to have retained their independence. The sanctuary was run by Delian magistrates, the hieropoioi.

    314-288
    Creation of a confederation of the Nesiotes by Demetrius Poliorcetes.
    307 or 306
    Creation on Delos by the confederation of the Demetria festival, in honour of Demetrius Poliorcetes, which alternates with the older Antigoneia, dedicated to his father Antigonus Monophthalmus.
    300
    After extraordinary leasing of the sacred territory, in 314 and 310, the hiera syngraphe (see ID 503) establishes new rules that are applied until the end of Delos' independence.
    288-246
    Confederation of the Nesiotes under the Lagid hegemony.
    Lagid officials like Philocles, king of Sidon, have control over the koinon; the latter makes many offerings in the sanctuary (see IG XI 2, 287 B and the commentary, p.141) and also helps the Delians to recover their debts from the islands' cities.
    In this period on Delos, foundation festivals financed by the kings and royal presents that are known from accounts and inventories were found in greater and greater numbers: three Ptolemaieia, four festivals instituted by Antigonus Gonatas, and one by Philetaerus, founder of the Attalid dynasty. Private individuals such as, for example, Stesileos and his daughter Echenike, were not to be left behind.
    Second half of the third century
    Lagid domination comes to an end at a date that is difficult to determine and the koinon of the Nesiotes seems to have disappeared until it was reorganised by Rhodes; power over the islands is then held by the kings of Macedon, as is shown by the erection at Delos in 222 by Antigonus Doson of a monument commemorating the victory at Sellasia over Sparta (IG XI 4, 1097).
    c. 200-168
    The confederation of the Nesiotes is revived by Rhodes as a counter to the ambitions of Philip V and of Antiochus III; this confederation's centre is on Tenos. Rhodes and the confederation are at this time allied with Rome, which makes its appearance in the conflicts of the eastern Mediterranean at the end of the third century.
    On Delos, the Rhodian faction is represented by Telemnestos, son of Aristeides.
    It is clearly possible to trace the fluctuations and uncertainties of Rhodian and Delian politics in the expensive honours (gold crowns and statues) given by the city of Delos to the powerful individuals of the day (see ID 399 and ID 442, p.157 and p.191).
    192
    The account ID 399 A breaks with earlier formats: it is the first to give an inventory of the earthenware jars of the public treasury and the sacred treasury.
    171
    Although it seems that the Delians made their opinions clear at the beginning of the Third Macedonian War, by decreeing a gold crown to the Senate, another to the Roman people and a third to the praetor commanding the fleet, they derived no benefit from their choice after Rome's victory.
     

    The period known as the second Athenian domination

    167
    The island is given to Athens and the Delians are expelled by a decision of the Roman senate. To Rhodes' disadvantage, the port is declared a free port.
    167-145
    Period of the Athenian cleruchy: an epimeletes represents Athens at the head of the administration of the island, which is repopulated by Athenians and foreigners of various different origins.
    155/4
    ID 1417; this document includes the inventory of the Delian temples and the rental contracts of Apollo's properties. It highlights how much has changed by comparison with the preceding era: among the most notable transformations is the development of eastern cults in connection with the cosmopolitan nature of the population. This kind of document disappears after 135 BC.
    After 133
    Organisation of the Roman province of Asia.
    c. 130
    Slave revolt on Delos.
    126/5
    The cleruchy was probably dissolved after 145/4, since there are no more decrees issued by the cleruchs; after an intermediary state that lasted a few years, a new regime is established, with a 'composite assembly' that brings together Athenians, Romans and other foreigners, which has little more than honorific powers. Nevertheless, the Athenian magistrates continue to run the island and its sanctuary.
    Autumn 88
    The troops of Mithridates, supported by the Athenians, capture and sack Delos; the sacred treasury is conveyed to Athens. After his victory over Athens, Sulla removes all the island's privileges, and spends time there after his return from Asia (84 BC?).
    69
    Second attack by pirates with links to Mithridates.
    The lex Gabinia Calpurnia (58 BC) restores its ancient privileges to Apollo's island, which does not, however, recover from the two pirate crises, and goes into a slow decline.

    © EfA / R. Étienne

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    Thasos - Acropole ; Athénaion (sanctuaire d'Athéna), GTh 65 - R1454-006

    Sujet : vase attique Matériau : argile Technique : tourné Cat.style : figure noir état de conservation : fragment
    Archimage is intended to gradually put online the graphic and photographic documents, kept in the Archives service of FSA.

    Archaeology in Greece ONLINE

    KIFISSIA, Deligianni 39-6060
    Kifissia, Deligianni 39 (O.T. 174A, property of Sarantopoulou). Maria Stefanopoulou (B' ????) reports on the discovery of houses and burials (Fig. 1). The area attests to a long use from the EH to the Byzantine periods. A floor and EH pottery sherds are the only remains of the earlier phase. Late Geometric pottery sherds may indicate that the area was inhabited during this period too. Part of a Late Archaic building was excavated, consisting of rubble walls. Seven ditches, 2 cairns and 2 pits containing EH and Archaic pottery sherds are contemporary to this building. A stone paved area, 2 walls and 5 cairns are dated to the early Classical period. From the second half of the 5th c. B.C. the area was converted to a cemetery. A peribolos wall of rectangular stone blocks was excavated. Th
    ....
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