8. Chronology

First Athenian domination

478/7
Creation by Athens of the Delian League
The sanctuary of Apollo and the League's treasury, deposited on Delos, are run by Athenian magistrates known as Amphictyons
454
Transfer of the treasury to the Acropolis in Athens
434/3-433/2
ID 89, first preserved administrative act that concerns the sanctuary at Delos.
431
Beginning of the Peloponnesian War.
426-425
Second purification of the island, after the one in the second half of the sixth century under Peisistratus: these purifications entailed the removal of tombs from the island.
The following year, in 425, the first penteteric Delia mentioned in written sources are celebrated: towards the end of the fifth century, on the occasion of these Athenian festivals Nicias and Callias, as architheoroi, dedicated 102 and 109 tiaras respectively (see ID 104, p.46). The former played an important political role in Athens and died in the Sicilian Expedition (415-412), the latter was regarded as the richest man of his time.
422
Expulsion of the Delians to Adramyttion in Asia Minor by the Athenians, on the pretext of impurity; the following year, the Delians are restored to the island following a Delphic oracle.

Ten years of independence

405
Defeat of Athens at Aegospotami: Delos recovers its independence within an Aegean Sea dominated by Sparta. An act was drawn up by Delian magistrates, the hieropoioi, in 395 (ID 95).

It is to this period (405-395) that must be attributed the offerings of Lysander of Sparta, the Spartan admiral who defeated the Athenians, who offered a golden rose and crown to Apollo (see ID 104, p.46).


The return of Athens: the second naval confederacy

394
After Conon's victory over the Spartan fleet, the Athenians regain a foothold on Delos.
378/7
Foundation by Athens of the second confederacy, of which Delos is part.
374/3
The Delians violently expel the Athenian Amphictyons: those responsible are punished with banishment and condemned to pay a fine of 10000 drachmas (see ID 98, p.36).
350-345/44
? Construction of the Pythion (GD 42) (see ID 104-4 and 104-24, p.53 and p.57)
343/42
The Delians demand their independence at the court of the Amphictyons at Delphi, but they are dismissed.
Summer of 314
Delos takes advantage of the proclamation of Antigonus Monophthalmus freeing all the Greek cities to escape Athenian oversight.

The so-called Independent period

The history of Delos from 314 to 167 BC is intertwined with that of the Cyclades, which experienced various different dominations in the form of confederations; within the confederations, the island and sanctuary seem to have retained their independence. The sanctuary was run by Delian magistrates, the hieropoioi.

314-288
Creation of a confederation of the Nesiotes by Demetrius Poliorcetes.
307 or 306
Creation on Delos by the confederation of the Demetria festival, in honour of Demetrius Poliorcetes, which alternates with the older Antigoneia, dedicated to his father Antigonus Monophthalmus.
300
After extraordinary leasing of the sacred territory, in 314 and 310, the hiera syngraphe (see ID 503) establishes new rules that are applied until the end of Delos' independence.
288-246
Confederation of the Nesiotes under the Lagid hegemony.
Lagid officials like Philocles, king of Sidon, have control over the koinon; the latter makes many offerings in the sanctuary (see IG XI 2, 287 B and the commentary, p.141) and also helps the Delians to recover their debts from the islands' cities.
In this period on Delos, foundation festivals financed by the kings and royal presents that are known from accounts and inventories were found in greater and greater numbers: three Ptolemaieia, four festivals instituted by Antigonus Gonatas, and one by Philetaerus, founder of the Attalid dynasty. Private individuals such as, for example, Stesileos and his daughter Echenike, were not to be left behind.
Second half of the third century
Lagid domination comes to an end at a date that is difficult to determine and the koinon of the Nesiotes seems to have disappeared until it was reorganised by Rhodes; power over the islands is then held by the kings of Macedon, as is shown by the erection at Delos in 222 by Antigonus Doson of a monument commemorating the victory at Sellasia over Sparta (IG XI 4, 1097).
c. 200-168
The confederation of the Nesiotes is revived by Rhodes as a counter to the ambitions of Philip V and of Antiochus III; this confederation's centre is on Tenos. Rhodes and the confederation are at this time allied with Rome, which makes its appearance in the conflicts of the eastern Mediterranean at the end of the third century.
On Delos, the Rhodian faction is represented by Telemnestos, son of Aristeides.
It is clearly possible to trace the fluctuations and uncertainties of Rhodian and Delian politics in the expensive honours (gold crowns and statues) given by the city of Delos to the powerful individuals of the day (see ID 399 and ID 442, p.157 and p.191).
192
The account ID 399 A breaks with earlier formats: it is the first to give an inventory of the earthenware jars of the public treasury and the sacred treasury.
171
Although it seems that the Delians made their opinions clear at the beginning of the Third Macedonian War, by decreeing a gold crown to the Senate, another to the Roman people and a third to the praetor commanding the fleet, they derived no benefit from their choice after Rome's victory.
 

The period known as the second Athenian domination

167
The island is given to Athens and the Delians are expelled by a decision of the Roman senate. To Rhodes' disadvantage, the port is declared a free port.
167-145
Period of the Athenian cleruchy: an epimeletes represents Athens at the head of the administration of the island, which is repopulated by Athenians and foreigners of various different origins.
155/4
ID 1417; this document includes the inventory of the Delian temples and the rental contracts of Apollo's properties. It highlights how much has changed by comparison with the preceding era: among the most notable transformations is the development of eastern cults in connection with the cosmopolitan nature of the population. This kind of document disappears after 135 BC.
After 133
Organisation of the Roman province of Asia.
c. 130
Slave revolt on Delos.
126/5
The cleruchy was probably dissolved after 145/4, since there are no more decrees issued by the cleruchs; after an intermediary state that lasted a few years, a new regime is established, with a 'composite assembly' that brings together Athenians, Romans and other foreigners, which has little more than honorific powers. Nevertheless, the Athenian magistrates continue to run the island and its sanctuary.
Autumn 88
The troops of Mithridates, supported by the Athenians, capture and sack Delos; the sacred treasury is conveyed to Athens. After his victory over Athens, Sulla removes all the island's privileges, and spends time there after his return from Asia (84 BC?).
69
Second attack by pirates with links to Mithridates.
The lex Gabinia Calpurnia (58 BC) restores its ancient privileges to Apollo's island, which does not, however, recover from the two pirate crises, and goes into a slow decline.

© EfA / R. Étienne

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Thermos-6501
Thermos. I. Papapostolou (ASA) reports on continued excavation in 2016 and 2017 of the 2 monumental staircases behind the E stoa of the Sanctuary of Apollo. The staircases were approached through 2 monumental gateways opening from the back wall of the stoa. The N gateway (width 4.40m) had 2 poros piers, of which the lower part was preserved, while the much wider (7.00m) S gateway also had poros piers, but its lintel was also supported by 2 pillars because of its width. The space between the gateway (neither of which had door leaves) and the staircases was paved. The recent uncovering of the SE retaining-wall of the agora (investigated by G. Sotiriadis in 1901-1902) explains the orientation of the S staircase, which led to the terrace supported by the retaining-wall. A first determinat
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A collaborative project with the BSA.